Aerial photography

Aerial archaeology is a very cost-effective method for site discovery with the potential to provide detailed maps of archaeological structures, showing up on the surface as so called "visibility marks", i.e. slight topographic variations visible as shadow-marks, soil-marks due to varying chemical and physical properties affecting soil colour on the surface, and crop-marks due to variable growth of the vegetation or frost-marks due to varying thermal properties. Georeferenced and rectified vertical and oblique aerial photos from reconnaissance flights are used to derive the archaeological interpretation of detected structures or features. In that way, repetitive observations can be combined into an extensive overall view of an archaeological region, which will be used as basic information for further prospecting, excavations, protection measures, and spatial archaeology.

Remote sensing methods

Remote sensing referes to all aerial sensor technologies, in contrast to the ground based geophysical prospection methods.

Aerial photography

Laser scanning

Airborne imaging spectroscopy

Geophysical prospection methods

Near-surface geophysical prospection can under suitable conditions be used to gain information about the physical properties of the subsurface.

Magnetic prospection

Ground penetrating radar (GPR)

Electromagnetic induction (EMI)

Data interpretation & analysis

Special data processing, visualisation and analysis methods are being tested and developed.

Data processing

Data interpretation